Churchill

October 23, 2019

Open main menu Wikipedia Search Winston Churchill Read in another language Download PDF Watch Edit "Churchill" redirects here. For other uses, see Churchill (disambiguation) and Winston Churchill (disambiguation). This British person's barrelled surname is Spencer-Churchill, but they are known by the surname Churchill. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

The Right Honourable Sir Winston Churchill KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA Churchill wearing a suit, standing and holding a chair The Roaring Lion, an iconic portrait by Yousuf Karsh, taken at the Canadian Parliament, December 1941 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom In office 26 October 1951 – 5 April 1955 Monarch George VI Elizabeth II Deputy Anthony Eden Preceded by Clement Attlee Succeeded by Anthony Eden In office 10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945 Monarch George VI Deputy Clement Attlee (1942–1945) Preceded by Neville Chamberlain Succeeded by Clement Attlee Leadership positions Leader of the Opposition In office 26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951 Monarch George VI Prime Minister Clement Attlee Preceded by Clement Attlee Succeeded by Clement Attlee Leader of the Conservative Party In office 9 November 1940 – 6 April 1955 Preceded by Neville Chamberlain Succeeded by Anthony Eden Ministerial offices 1939–1952 Minister of Defence In office 28 October 1951 – 1 March 1952 Preceded by Manny Shinwell Succeeded by The Earl Alexander of Tunis In office 10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945 Preceded by The Lord Chatfield (Coordination of Defence) Succeeded by Clement Attlee First Lord of the Admiralty In office 3 September 1939 – 11 May 1940 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Preceded by The Earl Stanhope Succeeded by A. V. Alexander Ministerial offices 1908–1929 Chancellor of the Exchequer In office 6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929 Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Preceded by Philip Snowden Succeeded by Philip Snowden Secretary of State for the Colonies In office 13 February 1921 – 19 October 1922 Prime Minister David Lloyd George Preceded by The Viscount Milner Succeeded by The Duke of Devonshire Secretary of State for Air In office 10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921 Prime Minister David Lloyd George Preceded by William Weir Succeeded by Frederick Guest Secretary of State for War In office 10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921 Prime Minister David Lloyd George Preceded by The Viscount Milner Succeeded by Laming Worthington-Evans Minister of Munitions In office 17 July 1917 – 10 January 1919 Prime Minister David Lloyd George Preceded by Christopher Addison Succeeded by Andrew Weir Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster In office 25 May 1915 – 25 November 1915 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith Preceded by Edwin Montagu Succeeded by Herbert Samuel First Lord of the Admiralty In office 24 October 1911 – 25 May 1915 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith Preceded by Reginald McKenna Succeeded by Arthur Balfour Secretary of State for the Home Department In office 19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith Preceded by Herbert Gladstone Succeeded by Reginald McKenna President of the Board of Trade In office 12 April 1908 – 14 February 1910 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith Preceded by David Lloyd George Succeeded by Sydney Buxton Parliamentary offices Member of Parliament for Woodford In office 5 July 1945 – 15 October 1964 Preceded by Constituency established Succeeded by Constituency abolished Member of Parliament for Epping In office 29 October 1924 – 5 July 1945 Preceded by Leonard Lyle Succeeded by Leah Manning Member of Parliament for Dundee In office 24 April 1908 – 15 November 1922 Serving with Alexander Wilkie Preceded by Edmund Robertson Alexander Wilkie Succeeded by Edwin Scrymgeour E. D. Morel Member of Parliament for Manchester North West In office 8 February 1906 – 24 April 1908 Preceded by William Houldsworth Succeeded by William Joynson-Hicks Member of Parliament for Oldham In office 24 October 1900 – 12 January 1906 Preceded by Walter Runciman Succeeded by John Albert Bright Personal details Born Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill 30 November 1874 Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England Died 24 January 1965 (aged 90) Kensington, London, England Resting place St Martin's Church, Bladon Political party Conservative ( 1900–19041924–1964 ) Liberal (1904–1924) Spouse(s) Clementine Hozier (m. 1908) Children DianaRandolphSarahMarigoldMary Parents Lord Randolph Churchill Jennie Jerome Education Harrow School Royal Military College, Sandhurst Signature Military service Allegiance United Kingdom Branch/service British Army United Kingdom Territorial Army Years of service 1893–1924 Rank See list Commands 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers Battles/wars Mahdist War Second Boer War First World War Awards See list Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895, and saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, then as Secretary of State for War and Air, and finally for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain's Middle East policy. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure and depressing the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945. His wartime leadership was widely praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy. After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe's liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Also praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.

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